Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco.
India’s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction… measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events.
Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
In 1995, the state of Colorado began a new funding program for the provision of mental health services to Medicaid recipients. Medicaid funding was restructured from a fee-for-service system into a capitated managed care system.
The restructuring altered the way in which mental health resources were allocated within Colorado’s mental health system. This article explores the ethical principles inherent in the allocation of mental health resources within Colorado. The allocation system before and after the capitation pilot is analyzed according to three models of distributive justice.
Under capitation, access to care corresponds to egalitarian ideals, while service delivery and outcomes follow a more utilitarian philosophy. Results from several empirical studies of the Colorado Medicaid… system are used to support this ethical analysis. The analysis leads to the suggestion that the fair-opportunity rule may be a useful principle for developing just distribution systems in other states in the future.
This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area.
A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum solution by using customizable tactics. The farmer agent is part of a multi-agent system where several agents, representing human interaction with the coastal ecosystems, communicate with a realistic simulator developed especially for aquatic ecological simulations. The… experiments performed revealed promising results in the field of optimization techniques and multi-agent systems applied to ecological simulations.
The results obtained open many other possible uses of the simulation architecture with applications in industrial and ecological management problems, towards sustainable development.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of bilateral vocal cord abductor paralysis in the context of primary herpes simplex infection. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old man was urgently admitted to hospital with laryngeal dyspnoea associated with dysphagia but without dysphonia. Physical examination demonstrated the vocal cords in a paramedian position with paralysis of abduction. The patient reported primary herpes simplex infection two weeks prior to this episode.
HSV serology indicated recent infection and lumbar puncture demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Complete resolution of respiratory symptoms was observed after 21 days of treatment with intravenous aciclovir. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Gerhardt syndrome comprises inspiratory dyspnoea without… dysphonia. It used to be mainly due to syphilis, but is now mostly observed in the setting of neurodegenerative disease.
The authors report a case of Gerhardt syndrome occurring after an episode of primary herpes simplex infection with the presence of herpes simplex virus in the CSF. Treatment by intravenous antiviral drugs allowed rapid resolution of the symptoms. The pathophysiology of Gerhardt syndrome remains unexplained, but the possible role of herpes simplex infection should be considered in cases of laryngeal palsy.
The transforming characteristics of the membrane complex in spermatogenesis of Fenneropenaeus chinensis have been studied by using transmission electron microscopy. Two types of membrane complex have been investigated based on their sources: one originating from nucleus and the other from cytoplasm.
The first one, consisted of annular structures, monolayer membrane blebs, and double or multi-lamellar membrane vesicles, emerges in the primary spermatocyte, then diffuses with the nuclear membrane and finally enters the cytoplasm. This type of membrane complex seems to play an important role in the materials transfusion from nucleus to cytoplasm, and it mainly exists inside the primary spermatocyte with some inside the secondary spermatocyte. The latter, originated from cytoplasm, is formed… during the anaphase of spermiogenesis. It also exists in mature sperm, locating at both sides of the nucleus under the acrosomal cap.
This type of membrane complex mainly comprises rings of convoluted membrane pouches, together with mitochondria, annular lamina bodies, fragments of endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membrane and some nuclear particles. It releases vesicles and particles into the acrosomal area during the formation of the perforatorium, suggesting a combined function of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi’s mechanism.