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Nanocrystalline silver (NPI 32101) has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of NPI 32101 in a rat model of ulcerative colitis and the possible mechanisms of action of the effects observed. NPI 32101, 4 mg/kg intracolonically or 40 mg/kg orally, significantly reduced colonic inflammation compared to the placebo and no-treatment groups. Sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg), either intracolonically or orally, also reduced colonic inflammation.

NPI 32101 significantly suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, whereas sulfasalazine suppressed MMP-9, IL-1β, and TNF-α, but not IL-12, compared to placebo. MMP-9 activity was reduced by NPI… 32101 and sulfasalazine.

NPI 32101 administered intracolonically or orally decreases ulcerative colitis in a rat model and is as effective as sulfasalazine. NPI 32101 treatment suppresses the expression and activity of MMP-9 and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12, mechanisms by which NPI 32101 may exert its anti-inflammatory effects. NPI 32101 may have therapeutic potential for treatment of ulcerative colitis.

This paper introduces a new PoP base package structure

In recent years, package-on-package (PoP) has been rapidly adopted for 3D integration of logic and memory within mobile handsets and other portable multimedia devices.

However, existing methods of making the PoP base package may not satisfy next generation applications that will require reduced memory interface pitches, higher memory interface pin-counts, reduced thickness, tight warpage control and higher levels of integration within the PoP base package.

This paper introduces a new PoP base package structure that addresses the challenges of next generation applications. A PoP base package with through mold vias (TMV) will be described. Package flatness and package stacking results will be presented and advantages of TMV technology will be reviewed.  View full abstract»