Most previous works focus on the link stability in static environments, with fixed sampling windows which are only suitable for certain network topologies. In this paper, we propose a scheme to estimate the link stability based on link connectivity changes, which can be performed on the network layer, without the need of peripheral devices or low layer data.
We adopt a variable sized sampling window and propose a method to estimate the link transition rates. The estimation scheme is not restricted to specific network topologies or mobility models. After that, we propose a routing method which adjusts its operating mode based on the estimated link stability….
Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can provide correct estimation in both stationary and non-stationary scenarios, and the presented routing protocol outperforms conventional routing schemes without link stability estimation.
In recent years, package-on-package (PoP) has been rapidly adopted for 3D integration of logic and memory within mobile handsets and other portable multimedia devices.
However, existing methods of making the PoP base package may not satisfy next generation applications that will require reduced memory interface pitches, higher memory interface pin-counts, reduced thickness, tight warpage control and higher levels of integration within the PoP base package.
This paper introduces a new PoP base package structure that addresses the challenges of next generation applications. A PoP base package with through mold vias (TMV) will be described. Package flatness and package stacking results will be presented and advantages of TMV technology will be reviewed. View full abstract»
Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco.
India’s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction… measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events.
Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
In 1995, the state of Colorado began a new funding program for the provision of mental health services to Medicaid recipients. Medicaid funding was restructured from a fee-for-service system into a capitated managed care system.
The restructuring altered the way in which mental health resources were allocated within Colorado’s mental health system. This article explores the ethical principles inherent in the allocation of mental health resources within Colorado. The allocation system before and after the capitation pilot is analyzed according to three models of distributive justice.
Under capitation, access to care corresponds to egalitarian ideals, while service delivery and outcomes follow a more utilitarian philosophy. Results from several empirical studies of the Colorado Medicaid… system are used to support this ethical analysis. The analysis leads to the suggestion that the fair-opportunity rule may be a useful principle for developing just distribution systems in other states in the future.
With the view of effectively fitting the complicated water level process of the lower Yellow River, polynomial regression, stepwise regression, parameters by ridge estimate and so on, are logically integrated. And the progressive transformation is introduced. Then a new method is put forward.
The core difference of this new method from the same kind of methods lies in that in this method the strong coupling effect of weak influencing factors which is common in a complicated water level process is considered, that many effective methods are synthetically used to reduce the fitting model error, and that the necessary progressive transformation is introduced. The advantages of many theories and methods are logically integrated in this method, and the method can be easily used.
The… rationality and necessity of each step in this method are ensured by sufficient theories, so this method can be widely used to effectively simulate the inherent relations in the same kind of complicated data. Furthermore, many complicated water level processes of the lower Yellow River are fitted by this method, and all the fitting precisions are markedly higher than the precision by the other existing methods. Every component term in the fitting model has clear physical meaning.