It is shown how the increment of the population mean is driven by its own diversity and follows a modified Newton’s search. Sufficient conditions for monotonic increase of the population mean fitness are derived for a more general class of fitness functions satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The diversification role of the crossover operator is analyzed in Part II.
Two patients with postoperative cicatricial lower lid ectropion were managed by having the patient massage the lower lid in an upward direction over a methyl-methacrylate scleral ring. The ectropion was corrected. Such nonsurgical management may be attempted as an alternate initial therapy for the patient who refuses or should not immediately undergo additional surgery..
2014]Niacin for reduction of cardiovascular risk.Landray MJ, Haynes R, Armitage J. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13; 371(20):1943-4. Seven of eight dominant OTUs during the first period clustered with the spirochete group, although a cyclic pattern of substitution occurred among members within this order. A more flexible community structure characterized the second period, since a sequential replacement of a Eubacterium-related organism by an unrelated deep-branched organism and finally by a Propionibacterium-like species was observed. Metabolic differences among the dominant fermenters detected suggest that changes in carbon and electron flow occurred during the stable performance and indicate that an extremely dynamic community can maintain a stable ecosystem function..
OBJECTIVES: The mechanism of tooth bleaching using peroxide oxidizers is not fully understood. It is unknown whether peroxide radicals make teeth whiter by deproteinizing, demineralizing, or oxidizing tooth tissues. This study was designed to define the mechanism of tooth bleaching and determine which of tooth enamel chemical components is/are affected by bleaching.METHODS: Sixty sound teeth were collected from adult patients.
Critical analysis of the absorption spectra of the purple membrane was also employed to establish criteria of purity for the preparation. The visible absorption spectra of the purified purple membrane preparation in buffer was found to have a maximum at 559 nm which shifted to 567 nm on light exposure. No indication of any spectral perturbation arising from bacterioruberin-containing membrane, the major contaminant in purple membrane preparations, was found.
PURPOSE: Crowding, the difficulty in recognizing a letter in close proximity with other letters, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in people with central vision loss. The goals of this study were (1) to examine whether increased letter spacing in words, which presumably reduces crowding among letters, would benefit reading for people with central vision loss and (2) to relate our finding to the current account of faulty feature integration of crowding.METHODS: Fourteen observers with central vision loss read aloud single sentences, one word at a time, using rapid serial visual presentation. Reading speeds were calculated based on the rapid serial visual presentation exposure durations yielding 80% accuracy.