The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of NPI 32101 in a rat model of ulcerative colitis and the possible mechanisms of action of the effects observed. NPI 32101, 4 mg/kg intracolonically or 40 mg/kg orally, significantly reduced colonic inflammation compared to the placebo and no-treatment groups. Sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg), either intracolonically or orally, also reduced colonic inflammation.
NPI 32101 significantly suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, whereas sulfasalazine suppressed MMP-9, IL-1β, and TNF-α, but not IL-12, compared to placebo. MMP-9 activity was reduced by NPI… 32101 and sulfasalazine.
NPI 32101 administered intracolonically or orally decreases ulcerative colitis in a rat model and is as effective as sulfasalazine. NPI 32101 treatment suppresses the expression and activity of MMP-9 and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12, mechanisms by which NPI 32101 may exert its anti-inflammatory effects. NPI 32101 may have therapeutic potential for treatment of ulcerative colitis.
Even at low concentration, it causes serious environmental and health problems. Current methods for the detection of Hg(2+) in environmental samples are tedious and time consuming because they require sophisticated instrumentation and complicated sample pre-treatment processes. In this work, a novel probe with high selectivity towards Hg(2+) was synthesized and a one step competitive immunochromatographic assay based on the probe for the detection of Hg(2+) was developed and applied for water samples.
The detection conjugate was immobilized on one end of the nitrocellulose membrane (detection line) and anti-BSA polyclonal antibody was immobilized on the other end of the membrane (control line). Hg(2+) in samples competed with… the probe to bind with immobilized detection conjugate.
The visual detection limit of Hg(2+) in spiked water samples was found to be about 1 ppb. The qualitative assay can be performed within 15 min. The advantages of the technique are rapidity, low cost and without the need of any equipment and complicated sample preparation.
Most previous works focus on the link stability in static environments, with fixed sampling windows which are only suitable for certain network topologies. In this paper, we propose a scheme to estimate the link stability based on link connectivity changes, which can be performed on the network layer, without the need of peripheral devices or low layer data.
We adopt a variable sized sampling window and propose a method to estimate the link transition rates. The estimation scheme is not restricted to specific network topologies or mobility models. After that, we propose a routing method which adjusts its operating mode based on the estimated link stability….
Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can provide correct estimation in both stationary and non-stationary scenarios, and the presented routing protocol outperforms conventional routing schemes without link stability estimation.
In recent years, package-on-package (PoP) has been rapidly adopted for 3D integration of logic and memory within mobile handsets and other portable multimedia devices.
However, existing methods of making the PoP base package may not satisfy next generation applications that will require reduced memory interface pitches, higher memory interface pin-counts, reduced thickness, tight warpage control and higher levels of integration within the PoP base package.
This paper introduces a new PoP base package structure that addresses the challenges of next generation applications. A PoP base package with through mold vias (TMV) will be described. Package flatness and package stacking results will be presented and advantages of TMV technology will be reviewed. View full abstract»
Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco.
India’s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction… measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events.
Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
In 1995, the state of Colorado began a new funding program for the provision of mental health services to Medicaid recipients. Medicaid funding was restructured from a fee-for-service system into a capitated managed care system.
The restructuring altered the way in which mental health resources were allocated within Colorado’s mental health system. This article explores the ethical principles inherent in the allocation of mental health resources within Colorado. The allocation system before and after the capitation pilot is analyzed according to three models of distributive justice.
Under capitation, access to care corresponds to egalitarian ideals, while service delivery and outcomes follow a more utilitarian philosophy. Results from several empirical studies of the Colorado Medicaid… system are used to support this ethical analysis. The analysis leads to the suggestion that the fair-opportunity rule may be a useful principle for developing just distribution systems in other states in the future.
With the view of effectively fitting the complicated water level process of the lower Yellow River, polynomial regression, stepwise regression, parameters by ridge estimate and so on, are logically integrated. And the progressive transformation is introduced. Then a new method is put forward.
The core difference of this new method from the same kind of methods lies in that in this method the strong coupling effect of weak influencing factors which is common in a complicated water level process is considered, that many effective methods are synthetically used to reduce the fitting model error, and that the necessary progressive transformation is introduced. The advantages of many theories and methods are logically integrated in this method, and the method can be easily used.
The… rationality and necessity of each step in this method are ensured by sufficient theories, so this method can be widely used to effectively simulate the inherent relations in the same kind of complicated data. Furthermore, many complicated water level processes of the lower Yellow River are fitted by this method, and all the fitting precisions are markedly higher than the precision by the other existing methods. Every component term in the fitting model has clear physical meaning.
This paper presents the development of a bivalve farmer agent interacting with a realistic ecological simulation system. The purpose of the farmer agent is to determine the best combinations of bivalve seeding areas in a large region, maximizing the production without exceeding the total allowed seeding area.
A system based on simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning, was developed to minimize the number of iterations required to unravel a semi-optimum solution by using customizable tactics. The farmer agent is part of a multi-agent system where several agents, representing human interaction with the coastal ecosystems, communicate with a realistic simulator developed especially for aquatic ecological simulations. The… experiments performed revealed promising results in the field of optimization techniques and multi-agent systems applied to ecological simulations.
The results obtained open many other possible uses of the simulation architecture with applications in industrial and ecological management problems, towards sustainable development.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of bilateral vocal cord abductor paralysis in the context of primary herpes simplex infection. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old man was urgently admitted to hospital with laryngeal dyspnoea associated with dysphagia but without dysphonia. Physical examination demonstrated the vocal cords in a paramedian position with paralysis of abduction. The patient reported primary herpes simplex infection two weeks prior to this episode.
HSV serology indicated recent infection and lumbar puncture demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Complete resolution of respiratory symptoms was observed after 21 days of treatment with intravenous aciclovir. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Gerhardt syndrome comprises inspiratory dyspnoea without… dysphonia. It used to be mainly due to syphilis, but is now mostly observed in the setting of neurodegenerative disease.
The authors report a case of Gerhardt syndrome occurring after an episode of primary herpes simplex infection with the presence of herpes simplex virus in the CSF. Treatment by intravenous antiviral drugs allowed rapid resolution of the symptoms. The pathophysiology of Gerhardt syndrome remains unexplained, but the possible role of herpes simplex infection should be considered in cases of laryngeal palsy.
This paper introduces the notion of context-aware mobile hypermedia. Context awareness means to take the users’ context such as location, time, objective, community relations, etc., into account when browsing, searching, annotating, and linking. Attributes constituting the context of the user may be sensed automatically and/or be provided by the user directly.
When mobile, the user may obtain context-aware hypermedia support on a variety of small and medium sized computing platforms such as mobile phones, PDAs, tablet PCs, and laptops. This paper introduces the HyCon (HyperContext) framework with an architecture for context-aware hypermedia. The architecture includes interfaces for a sensor tier encapsulating relevant sensors and represents the hypermedia objects in structures based on… the XLink and RDF standards.
A prototype called the HyConExplorer created with the framework is presented, and it is illustrated how the classical hypermedia features such as browsing, searching, annotating, linking, and collaboration are supported in context-aware hypermedia. Among the features of the HyConExplorer are real-time location-based searches via Google collecting hits within a specified nimbus around the user’s GPS position. Finally, the use of scenarios for and evaluation of the use of the HyConExplorer in public school projects are discussed.